By Pawel Bienkowski
This ebook is dedicated to the explicit difficulties of electromagnetic box (EMF) measurements within the close to box and to the research of the most components which bog down accuracy in those measurements. It specializes in cautious and exact layout of platforms to degree within the close to box according to an intensive knowing of the elemental engineering rules and on an research of the most probably method mistakes. starting with a brief creation to electromagnetic fields with an emphasis at the close to box, it them provides tools of EMF measurements in close to box stipulations. It information the criteria restricting size accuracy together with inner ones (thermal balance, frequency reaction, dynamic features, susceptibility) and exterior ones (field integration, mutual couplings among a probe and first and secondary EMF assets, directional development deformations). It keeps with a dialogue on the best way to gauge the parameters declared by means of an EMF meter producer and easy equipment for checking out those parameters. It additionally information how designers of measuring apparatus can reassess the close to box while designing and checking out, in addition to how clients can make the most the data in the booklet to make sure their checks and effects include the main actual measurements attainable. Electromagnetic Measurements within the close to box is addressed to quite a lot of experts in biology, medication, hard work security, environmental safeguard, metrologists, EMF meter designers, testers and clients, or even in the event you needs to make criminal judgements at the grounds of size effects interpretation.
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Extra info for Electromagnetic Measurements in the Near Field
This is the most important factor limiting the method application in EMF measurements—its sensitivity. 1 K. book Page 36 Wednesday, September 28, 2011 4:22 PM 36 ELECTROMAGNTIC MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEAR FIELD While we accept any without question the advantages of the SAR as the quantity applied in the basic research, let’s analyze its applicability in metrological practice. The SAR is defined twofold: 1. 9) 2. 10) where: σ = conductivity of the medium, ρ = mass density. ) Both SAR definitions should be equivalent.
3. book Page 30 Wednesday, September 28, 2011 4:22 PM 30 ELECTROMAGNTIC MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEAR FIELD radiate only in a channel (-s) and spurious radiations are limited by radiocommunications regulations. Near them appear harmonics of the basic frequency, intermediate frequencies, and their combinations. In this case, only selective measurements may reflect the whole radiated spectrum. 4. A selective measurement can also be troublesome, especially when measurements are performed in the presence of a larger number of sources.
A bit less evident is the necessity of using electric field sensors based on electric antennas (whip, symmetric dipole antenna) and sensors with magnetic antennas (loop, ferrite rod) for magnetic field measurement. An exception to this rule will be discussed in Chapter 6, as confusion may arise from the widespread use of the meters equipped with loop antennas (because of their better stability, reduced sensitivity to the presence of conducting objects in their proximity, and relatively smaller sizes) and calibrated in E-field units.
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