Biological Molecules by Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)

By Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)

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Extra resources for Biological Molecules

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Every cell of the body contains 46 molecules of DNA (one in each chromosome) which have a total length of over a metre. Viruses are non-living. They consist of a piece of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. However, when the nucleic acid enters a cell, the information contained iri it takes over the machinery of the cell and diverts it into producing new viruses. These are subsequently released and go on to infect new cells. This is the 'life-cycle' of a virus, although it can only be said to be 'living' when it is in another cell.

Transform energy. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis of proteins that are destined to be secreted. Bacterial cells differ from all other cells because they lack a defined nucleus and most of the organelles found in other eukaryotic cells. Bacteria might be looked on as being 'primitive' organisms but in fact they have survived from the earliest days of the evolution of life on earth. and have developed to be able to live in and exploit almost any habitat, from the human bloodstream to hot.

9. The amino acid residues in the active site of an enzyme are held in extremely precise orientations with respect to each other. to create a three-dimensional shape into which substrate molecules fit with great specificity. A major role of that part of the protein which is not active site is probably scaffolding maintaining the positions of the active site residues. probably numbering 6-12 residues. and which frequently come from widely separated regions of the polypeptide chain. g. DNA, proteins) only a small part of them is in contact with the active site residues of the enzyme that is acting on them.

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Biological Molecules by Dr C. A. Smith, Dr E. J. Wood (auth.)
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