BCS: 50 years by Leon N. Cooper

By Leon N. Cooper

The BCS concept of superconductivity constructed in 1957 via Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer has been remarkably profitable in explaining the houses of superconductors. moreover, thoughts from BCS were integrated into assorted fields of physics, from nuclear physics and dense quark subject to the present ordinary version. useful purposes contain SQUIDs, magnetic resonance imaging, superconducting electronics and the transmission of electrical energy. This important booklet is a compilation of either a historic account and a dialogue of the present country of idea and test. With contributions from many well-known scientists, it goals to introduce scholars and researchers to the origins, the influence and the present country of the BCS idea.

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He told me about his own work on a theory of superconductivity Fig. 1. John Bardeen. 5in Development of Concepts in Superconductivity ch3 35 based on electron-phonon interactions, which he had done at Purdue in the spring of 1950. Fr¨ohlich’s work was done without knowledge of the isotope effect. He was greatly encouraged when he learned, just about the time he was ready to send his manuscript to The Physical Review, about this strong experimental confirmation of his approach. Although there were mathematical difficulties in both his approach and mine, primarily because of a use of perturbation theory in a region where it is not justified, we were both convinced that at last we were on the road to an explanation of superconductivity.

In other words, London and London recognized that superconductors are perfect diamagnets. With the Nazi regime coming into power in 1933 a sudden shift of the research efforts from Germany to the United States and England took place, changing the priorities of numerous researchers. While the theory of the London brothers is a beautiful phenomenological account of the Meissner effect, a microscopic theory was not immediately inspired by this key experiment. 34 His theory was based on the assumption that strong Coulomb interactions dramatically alter the character of electrons.

Bardeen dependent energy gap for excitation of particles from the superconducting ground state. A superconductor differs from a semiconductor in that the gap in the former is relative to the Fermi surface and is not fixed in k-space. a If vs is the velocity of flow, the mass of the flow at T = 0◦ K is ρvs where ρ = nm is the density of the electrons. At a finite temperature, quasi-particle excitations will reduce the current, but when a local equilibrium is established corresponding to a given v s , a net flow ρs vs will remain.

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BCS: 50 years by Leon N. Cooper
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