By G. J. Boulnois, I. S. Roberts (auth.), Prof. Dr. Klaus Jann, Dr. Barbara Jann (eds.)
Many micro organism, corresponding to convinced Neisseria and Haemophilus or Escherichia coli, may be able to stand up to the bactericidal job of supplement and phagocytes. This bacterial self security is led to by means of encapsulation. Bacterial pills hence let the pathogenic micro organism to outlive within the host via counter motion or evasion of the nonspecific host protection within the early pre immune section of infection. it is just within the overdue immune section of the an infection, whilst particular anticapsular antibodies are shaped and implement the host's safeguard procedure, that this protecting motion is triumph over. Encapsulated micro organism are then killed and eradicated. curiously, a few pills cannot or simply inefficiently be dealt with via the immune approach. the consequent loss of antibody formation ends up in a protracted susceptibility of the host to the pathogenic micro organism showing such pills. It used to be discovered that bacterial tablets include acidic poly saccharides. From this it that the function of the pills within the interplay of encapsulated micro organism with the host will be end result of the chemistry of the capsular polysaccharides. This ended in in depth stories of capsular polysaccharides in lots of laboratories. Our expanding wisdom of the structural beneficial properties of capsular polysaccharides caused not just immuno chemical reports reading the interactions of those poly saccharide antigens and characterizing the epitopes, but in addition investigations into their biosynthesis. those experiences have been complemented and supported via genetic analyses. this day many interdisciplinary investigations of capsular polysaccharides are in progress.
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Extra resources for Bacterial Capsules
It is possible that the lipid-substituted polysaccharide fraction is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane by hydrophobic interaction and the unsubstituted polysaccharide is retained by ionic and other interactions. Formation and maintenance of the capsule is then due to the sum of these interactions. We assume that with all capsular polysaccharides the mode of association to· the cell wall and the maintenance of the capsule itself follow the same principle of lipid participation. ~accharides The expression of capsules by the bacterial cell is a very complex process, passing through stages which are associated with different cellular compartments.
Coli K5 capsular polysaccharide. Infect Immun 50: 459-466 Prehm P, lann B, lann K (1976) The 09 antigen of Escherichia coli structure of the polysaccharide chain. Eur 1 Biochem 67: 53-56 Reske K, Jann K (1972) The 08 antigen of Escherichia coli. Structure of the polysaccharide chain. J Biochem 31: 320-328 Robbins lB, Schneerson R, Liu T-Y, Schiffer MS, Schiffman G, Myerowitz RL, McCracken GH, et al. (1975) Cross-reacting bacterial antigens and immunity to disease caused by encapsulated bacteria.
Injluenzae type b (Hib) (ZON and ROBBINS 1983). Since Hib causes severe and often lethal infections in small children and since the capsular antigen is an important virulence determinant (see MOXON and KROLL, this volume), attempts at cross-protection were made with the related and serologically cross-reacting E. coli KlOO polysaccharide (ROBBINS et al. 1975). These endeavors were, however, discontinued after it became known that E. coli K100 strains may also be virulent in children. The K18 antigen differs from the K22 antigen only in partial (ca.
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