An Introduction to Sustainable Development: 2nd Edition by J. Elliott

By J. Elliott

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Rather, comprehensive, longerterm solutions were required, based on packages of broad policy reforms in indebted nations. The term structural adjustment programme (SAP) is used to refer to the generic activities of the IMF and WB in the arena of policy reform. The central objective of SAPs as defined by the World Bank is to ‘modify the structure of an economy so that it can maintain both its growth rate and the viability of its balance of payments in the medium term’ (Reed, 1996: 41). , 1996: 265).

Sustainable development is also being pursued in the 1990s in the context of a continued reduction in world economic growth rates. Historically, such economic pressures have been important factors behind significant political changes within and between states, and this has again been demonstrated in recent years. The currency crisis in 1998 What is sustainable development? • 31 in Indonesia, for example, led directly to the removal of President Suharto after more than thirty years in power. Economic and political changes were also very much interwoven in the 1989 and 1991 revolutions in Eastern Europe and the USSR respectively.

3 identifies the twelve countries around the globe which together are estimated to account for the majority of the world’s biodiversity. Evidently, these are largely the areas of the world’s remaining tropical forests, which are particularly species diverse. , 1999). What has been wrong with past development? In Chapter 1 it was seen how ideas about how best to achieve development and as regards society’s relationship with the environment changed over time, in part as evidence emerged ‘on the ground’ about the successes and failures therein.

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An Introduction to Sustainable Development: 2nd Edition by J. Elliott
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