By Norman John Greville Pounds
This publication, like its significant other quantity, An ancient Geography of Europe 450 BC-AD 1330, seeks to ascertain the advanced of typical and man-made positive aspects that experience motivated the process background and feature been inspired by means of it. It follows the overall trend of the sooner quantity and spans the interval from the early 16th century to the eve of the commercial Revolution in continental Europe, nearly 1500 to 1840. It first provides an image of the geography of Europe - political, social and monetary - within the early 16th century, and it ends with an analogous photograph of continental Europe within the early 19th. The intervening interval of approximately 3 centuries is simply too brief to be offered in a sequence of cross-sections. in its place, among those horizontal photos a sequence of vertical experiences has been inserted. those hint the improvement of the most elements of ecu geography in this interval. There are chapters on inhabitants, city improvement, agriculture, production and exchange and delivery. As within the previous quantity, no try has been made to incorporate both the British Isles or Russia, and those are spoke of purely by the way.
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Additional info for An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840
The popula- 25 Europe in the early sixteenth century Over 100 81 - 100 6141-60 21-40 Up to 20 No data Fig. 79 It was increasing rapidly in both, but overall densities remained low in comparison with those of Italy. The highest average densities were in Castile, but these disguised the contrast between the densely peopled Basque province and Old Castile and the thinly settled regions of Estremadura and La Mancha. There was a vigorous migration from north to south, due in part to the fact that Andalusia was the gateway to the New World.
Claude de Seyssel urged his contemporaries to use French rather than the classical languages in their writings, and thus initiated a literary trend which complemented the political movement towards unity. The Spanish peninsula had never, not even during the period of Roman domination, formed a political, certainly not a cultural, unit. Its internal divisions were intensified during the Middle Ages. While Catalans to the east and Portuguese to the west were pursuing their commercial and maritime schemes, the Castilians - by far the most numerous of the peoples of the peninsula - were locked in a deadly struggle with the Moors.
In 1526, following the death of Lewis who had united the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia, Ferdinand of Habsburg, brother of Charles V, was elected King of Bohemia, thus commencing that association of Bohemia with Austria which lasted until 1918. The events of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries drew the countries of eastern Europe into ever closer relationship with those of central and western. Not only were the art styles of the Italian Renaissance diffused as far as Poland and Slovakia; the Reformation itself, both Lutheran and Calvinist, was widely accepted in Hungary, Transylvania and Poland.
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