By Yuri Bregel
Yuri Bregel's Atlas presents us with a bird's eye view of the advanced heritage of this significant a part of the Islamic global, that's heavily attached with the heritage of Iran, Afghanistan, China, and Russia; at varied occasions components of this zone have been incorporated in those neighboring states, and because 1991 5 new autonomous states emerged in imperative Asia: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. overlaying the 4th century B.C. to the current, the maps exhibit a few of the political entities, their approximate borders, the key ethnic teams and their migrations, army campaigns and battles, and so on. each one map is followed by means of a textual content which provides a concise survey of the most occasions of the political and ethnic background of the respective interval. With specified maps at the distribution of the Turkmen, Uzbek, Qazaq, and Qirghiz tribes within the 19th-20th centuries, in addition to the positioning of significant archaeological websites and architectural monuments. The final map (Central Asia in 2000) exhibits present gasoline and oil pipelines.
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Extra resources for An Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik - Part 8: Uralic & Central Asian Studies, 9)
In modern Tajikistan the Samanids are regarded the first (and only) Tajik national dynasty. pmd B C Borders of the Samanid state in the middle of the 10th century Main trade routes ? 100 Sawran 0 Farab (Otrar) S N Ch a k Binket A Kasan S Z A N A A Taleqan R O Harirud B A D G H S KE Merverrud NJ -R US TA G Yehudiya S A R I G U N I D G U R Z I V A N ? Q F N Anbar G H A R C H I Pishin S T A N TO A W K N Ba K Valvalij ok RTaleqan PE Kishm UP AN ST I AR KH S H I N A N IK Jerm b kha ur B Anderab Panjhir M U N J A O L N O R 4 Pervan I ho r d G H U R r mi Pa Ishkashim Baghlan R AN WE LO RIST A KH ur A N K HDar-i Tubbat a A n-D rya W Wa k h a Badakhshan a M Al ich nd Gu S Rustaq 3 ng rta A H S L Hulbuk Pargar ing Bamiyan Kabul C © Yu ri Breg el 20 0 3 12.
The Arabs conquered Sasanid Iran and incorporated it into the Umayyad Caliphate by 651; they thus reached the Amu-Darya (Jeyhun, as they named it), which, for the next half a century, remained the border between the Caliphate and Soghdiana. At that time Soghd was divided between several independent principalities. The largest one was that of Samarqand (its original Soghdian name was, apparently, Smarakanda), whose ruler had the title of ikhshid. According to Chinese sources, the supremacy of the ikhshid of Samarqand was recognized by the majority of smaller principalities situated in the upper and middle course of the Zerafshan and in the Qashqa-Darya valley, such as Maymurgh, Ishtikhan, Kushaniya, Nakhsheb, and Kesh.
This conversion changed the strategic relationship between the Samanids and the Qarakhanids: the latter became just another Islamic dynasty, there was no more reason to fight the infidels along the Samanid border, and the “Warriors for the Faith” either switched to more peaceful occupations or gradually left for the western borders of the Islamic world (Anatolia and the Caucasus), where their services were still needed. It is not clear whether the disappearance of the ghazis contributed to the ultimate fall of the Samanids, but, in any case, it made the Qarakhanid conquest easier.
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