American Indians in World War I: at home and at war by Thomas A. Britten

By Thomas A. Britten

In the course of global warfare I, approximately 10,000 local american citizens both enlisted or have been drafted into the yankee Expeditionary strength. 3 similar questions are tested extensive for the 1st time during this ebook: What have been the battlefield reviews of local american citizens? How did racial and cultural stereotypes approximately Indians impact their tasks? Did their wartime contributions bring about adjustments in federal Indian coverage or their average of living?Many American Indians wonderful themselves combating at the Western entrance. And compared to black and Mexican American squaddies, Indians loved close to common appreciate while in uniform. To rejoice their patriotism in the course of and after the battle, Indians may perhaps even practice various conventional ceremonies in a different way proscribed. either in wrestle and of their help roles at the homefront, together with volunteer contributions via Indian ladies, local americans was hoping their efforts could lead to a extra lively program of democracy. however the Bureau of Indian Affairs persevered to chop overall healthiness and education schemes and to suppress Indian cultures. "This is a chief booklet and an important contribution to twentieth-century Indian history."--Professor Donald L. Parman

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Sheridan never fully trusted the employment of Native Americans and ordered Crook to make better use of traditional cavalry. When he refused to carry out Sheridan's orders, Crook lost command of the Department of Arizona and subsequently received a transfer to the northern plains. His replacement, General Nelson A. Miles, attempted to carry out Sheridan's ban Page 12 on the extensive use of Apache scouts but soon reverted to the policies of his predecessor. 8 Sheridan was not alone in his skepticism about the utility of Native American soldiers.

Brooke, Wesley Merrit, and John Gibbon, as well as Benjamin H. Grierson, the former commander of the all-black Tenth Cavalry Regiment, all opposed the idea. Only Generals David S. Stanley, T. R. O. Howard favored the scheme. Thus, in the spring of 1890 six of the nine highest-ranking army officers expressed varying degrees of opposition to the plan to enlist Indians as regular soldiers. 28 Even with the lukewarm reception accorded by top army brass, the success of Casey and Wheeler prompted General Schofield and Secretary Proctor to act on the matter of enlisting Indians as regulars.

39 There were other culture-based problems. Native Americans were reluctant to adopt military-style haircuts, live in frame dwellings, or undergo routine physical examinations, which some found to be uncomfortable and humiliating. Several Indian soldiers refused to be vaccinated, while others found frequent bathing to be a waste of time. According to William Bruce White, Native American soldiers disliked wearing uniforms because they missed the contact of their leg muscles against the horse. Indian troops (as well as their Anglo counterparts) complained about the poor quality of army food and the boredom of barracks life.

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