Al-Andalus : the art of islamic Spain ; [in conjunction with by Jerrilynn D. Dodds.

By Jerrilynn D. Dodds.

In 711 a military of Arabs and Berbers from North Africa, united via their religion in Islam, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and arrived at the Iberian Peninsula. In lower than a decade the Muslims introduced many of the peninsula below their domination they referred to as the Iberian lands they managed al-Andalus. even though the borders of al-Andalus shifted over the centuries, the Muslims remained a strong strength at the peninsula for nearly 8 hundred years, till 1492, once they have been expelled by way of Ferdinand and Isabella. This quantity, which accompanies an enormous exhibition provided on the Alhambra in Granada and The Metropolitan Museum of artwork in ny, is dedicated to the little-known creative legacy of Islamic Spain. From 711 to 1492 al-Andalus was once the occidental frontier of Islam. Floating at the western fringe of the Mediterranean, bring to an end from the ecu continent by means of jagged mountains, it used to be geographically remoted from either North Africa and Europe, from Islamic in addition to Christian lands. actual remoteness gave al-Andalus a privileged position in medieval myths but in addition separated it from the groups of the east and the west, in order that it bought basically sporadic cognizance from either worlds. even supposing a small team of students pursued the intense research of the humanities of Islamic Spain, those arts have for the main half been considered as fantastic and unique vestiges of a misplaced tradition, as gadgets and monuments that left no mark on ecu culture.

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Additional info for Al-Andalus : the art of islamic Spain ; [in conjunction with the Exhibition Al-Andalus: the Art of Islamic Spain, held at the Alhambra, Granada (March 18 - June 7, 1992), and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, N

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Since the maximum effect is obtained by using heterojunctions between the semiconductor serving as the active region and more wide band material, the most promising systems explored in that time were GaP−GaAs and AlAs−GaAs. To be “compatible”, materials of the “couple” should have, as the first and most important condition, close values of the lattice constants Fig. 2; therefore, heterojunctions in the AlAs−GaAs system were preferable. Studies of phase diagrams and the growth kinetics in this system, and development of the liquid epitaxy (LPE) technique especially for heterostructure growth, soon resulted in fabricating the first lattice-matched AlGaAs heterostructures.

M. Ruiz, A. Cuevas, J. M. Gómez Agost. Records of the 1st European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 269–277, Luxemburg, 1977) 10. P. Benitez, M. Hrnandez, R. Mohedano, F. Muñoz. Proc SPIE 3781:22 (1999) 11. I. Tobías, A. C. Miñano. Int J Solar Energy 10:185 (1991) 12. A. C. A. J. Terrón, I. Tobías, G. Sala, J. Alonso. Proc IEEE PV Specialists Conference (IEEE New York, 1991), 99 13. M. O’Neill, A. McDanal, R. Walters, J. Perry. Proc 22nd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, New York, 1991), 523 14.

Efficiency, VOC and FF versus sunlight concentration for a GaInP/GaAs dual-junction cell 2 III-V Heterostructures in Photovoltaics 41 and interface roughness can be estimated as well. Due to difference in refraction indices of the growing materials, oscillations arise on the time-resolved light reflection curve. Attenuation of these oscillations due to increase in absorption in the growing layer is used for determining the composition in the case of the ternary alloys, whereas period of oscillations is used for growth rate and layer thickness calculations.

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Al-Andalus : the art of islamic Spain ; [in conjunction with by Jerrilynn D. Dodds.
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