By K.-H. Narjes (auth.), P. Mathy (eds.)
In the concluding consultation of the symposium "Acid Deposition, a problem for Europe" held in Karlsruhe in September 1983, Dr. GINJAAR, the previous Minister of wellbeing and fitness and Environmental safeguard of the Netherlands, emphasized the necessity for constructing a concerted study programme together with the results of pollution on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The Council of Ministers of the ecu group in 1984 followed a revision of the third neighborhood Programme on surroundings comprising agreement learn and concerted motion within the box of the results of pollution in eco platforms. those examine parts have been additionally brought within the 4th R-D neighborhood Programme on surroundings, followed through the Council of Ministers in 1986 and are topic back to agreement study and concerted motion. The fee of the eu neighborhood is particularly involved to extend the effectiveness of researcn initiatives performed in the nationwide programmes, and people undertaken on the group point. The fee has a tendency to advance an built-in clinical procedure, together with not just the physico-chemical behaviour, the shipping and the deposition of airborne toxins but in addition the consequences of those toxins, particularly on residing organisms and ecosystems. with reference to the explicit factor of the consequences, the fee is making an attempt to enhance and advance a multi-disciplinary method associating biologists, pathologists, eco physiologists, and experts of soil sciences, in the concerted motion, in addition to inside of coordinated study projects.
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Only the first three of these eight theoretical effects have been confirmed by observation and experiments in specific case studies of various aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems. In both Europe and North America, most studies of the detrimental effects of air pollutants on forests and agricultural ecosystems have been made in the vicinity of strong point sources of S02, NOx, and F (Woodwell, 1970; Carlson, 1974; Thompson, 1981; Legge et aI, 1980; Treshow et aI, 1967; Adams, 1962; Scurfield, 1960; Miller and McBride, 1975; Postel, 1984).
When human beings first appeared on the earth and the process of civilization began, our collective impacts on the processes of natural selection and evolution were hardly perceptible. But as we increased in numbers and particularly after we learned to: -- harness the energy stored in fossil fuels, and -- apply this energy to the processes of urbanization, industrialization, and intensive agriculture and forestry, our collective impacts on the processes of natural selection Most and evolution became progressively more impressive.
The four scientific approaches commonly used in research on the response of ecosystems to air pollutants are damage surveys, controlled-exposure tests, mechanisms tests, and risk assessments. Damage or injury surveys quantify the number of organisms or 'geographical extertt. , 1986). , 1981; McLaughlin, 1985). In air pollution research, damage surveys are useful only when combined with reliable data on air quality. Rule 1 (above) requires that concentrations of airborne chemicals, sufficient to cause injury, are present consistently at the same time and place in which symptoms are observed.
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