By C. Huang
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Additional resources for Advanced Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery
Another way of assessing effects of obesity is to examine which adipokines show decreases in their circulating levels after bariatric surgery. An additional problem with regard to circulating adipokines is that the circulating levels of some are either at or below the limits of sensitivity Effect of Obesity on Circulating Adipokines and Their Expression in Omental Adipose Tissue of Female Bariatric Surgery Patients 21 for their assay and this is a special problem with regard to TNF and IL-1. These adipokines may be very important in the inflammatory response seen in obesity but they primarily act as local autocrine or paracrine mediators of inflammation rather than as circulating hormones.
Lipocalin-2 thus appears to be an inflammatory marker whose circulating levels are not invariably elevated in obesity. 20 Lipoprotein lipase [LPL] This multi-functional enzyme is the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of circulating lipids containing triglycerides (Wang and Eckel, 2009). LPL was shown by Rodbell (1964) to be preferentially released by fat cells rather than the non-fat cells of rat adipose tissue. Similar results are seen in human omental adipose tissue and the total release of LPL by adipose tissue correlated with BMI (Fain, 2010).
2007) have reviewed the evidence that circulating PAI-1 levels are enhanced in obesity and are primarily produced by macrophages in adipose tissue. , (2004) confirmed the high correlation between visceral fat and circulating PAI-1, their in vivo measurements of release from visceral fat were negative. They concluded that the relationship between PAI-levels and visceral fat is as co-correlates rather than a causal relationship. 28 Secretory type II phospholipase A2 [PLA2] PLA2 is an acute phase protein that is able to degrade phospholipids present in lipoproteins and cell membranes thus releasing inflammatory molecules (Rosenson and Gelb, 2009).
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