By Helen M. Kingston
This ABC is a concise, hugely illustrated creation to genetic mechanisms all for inherited problems. the recent version has been broadly up to date with new and revised chapters to surround fast advances within the box. easy genetic innovations are defined besides the applying of recent applied sciences in medical perform. details on correct sites also are integrated in addition to advised texts for additional studying.
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Additional info for ABC of Clinical Genetics, 3rd Edition
The risk of being affected by one or other condition is 1 in 2 and the risk of inheriting both conditions is 1 in 4. 3 Example 6 Risk of having Risk of developing Chance of carrying disorder gene if remaining Person inherited gene (%) (%) unaffected (%) B Example 6 Reduced penetrance also modifies simple autosomal dominant risk. 4 35 ABC of Clinical Genetics clinical signs or symptoms. Genes demonstrating reduced penetrance include tuberous sclerosis, retinoblastoma and otosclerosis. Example 6 shows the risk to the child and grandchild of an affected individual for a disorder with 80% penetrance in which only 80% of gene mutation carriers develop the disorder.
People who inherit the defective gene will be destined to become affected, but may remain asymptomatic well into adult life. Young adults at risk may not know whether they have inherited the disorder and be at risk of transmitting it to their children at the time they are planning their own families. The possibility of detecting the mutant gene before symptoms become apparent has important consequences for conditions such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. Predictive genetic testing is considered in chapter 3.
Severely affected fetuses who survive to the second trimester can be detected by ultrasonography, which shows cystic hygroma, chylothorax, asictes and hydrops. Fetal mortality is very high in these cases. The incidence of Turner syndrome in liveborn female infants is 1 in 2500. Phenotypic abnormalities vary considerably but are usually mild. In some infants the only detectable abnormality is lymphoedema of the hands and feet. The most consistent features of the syndrome are short stature and infertility from streak gonads, but neck webbing, broad chest, cubitus valgus, coarctation of the aorta, renal anomalies and visual problems may also occur.
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